Alport syndrome is characterized by renal, cochlear, and ocular involvement. The main manifestation is glomerular nephropathy with hematuria, progressing to end-stage renal disease. Eye abnormalities include anterior lenticonus, maculopathy, corneal endothelial vesicles, and recurrent corneal erosion. The hearing loss develops gradually and is usually detectable during late childhood or early adolescence.
Prevalence of Alport syndrome is estimated at 1/50 000.
Alport syndrome is caused by mutations in COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 genes. The disease is known to be inherited in an X-linked, autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant pattern.
Indications for genetic testing:
- Confirmation of clinical diagnosis
- Carrier testing for at-risk relatives
- Genetic counseling
- Prenatal diagnosis for known familial mutation
Clifford EK. Alport Syndrome and Thin Basement Membrane Nephropathy. GeneReviews® 2001 Aug 28 (Updated 2013 Feb 28)
Hertz JM et al. Clinical utility gene card for: Alport syndrome. European Journal of Human Genetics. 2012. 20 doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.237 (Updated 2014 Nov 12)