Leber Congenital Amaurosis – LCA
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is an early-onset and severe retinal dystrophy leading to congenital blindness. It is diagnosed by a severely reduced or absent electroretinogram (ERG) before one year of age. Shortly after birth, patients usually manifest poor fixation, nystagmus, photophobia, and amaurotic pupils. Later, in most patients, a large variety of retinal changes appear, including salt-and-pepper pigmentation, attenuated vessels, and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). LCA is mostly inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder.
Indications for genetic testing:
1. Confirmation of clinical diagnosis
2. Prediction of disease progression
3. Carrier testing for at-risk family members
4. Genetic counseling
5. Prenatal diagnosis for known familial mutation