Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa
Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited retinal dystrophy caused by the loss of photoreceptors and characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination. Affected individuals first experience night blindness, followed by reduction of the peripheral visual field and, sometimes, loss of central vision late in the course of the disease which eventually leads to blindness after several decades. Signs and symptoms often first appear in childhood, but severe visual problems do not usually develop until early adulthood. In some cases, RP is characterized by cone-rod dystrophy, in which the decrease in visual acuity predominates over loss of the visual field. RP is usually nonsyndromic but there are also many syndromic forms. The main risk factor is a family history of retinitis pigmentosa.
Indications for genetic testing:
- Confirmation of clinical diagnosis
- Testing of individuals in subsequent generations with family history of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa
- Genetic counseling
- Prenatal diagnosis for known familial mutation