Breast and Ovarian Cancer
Breast and ovarian cancers are most strongly associated with mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Among women who have a clinically important BRCA gene mutation, the lifetime risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer can reach 80%. Cancer-predisposing mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. The prognosis for breast cancer survival depends upon the stage at which breast cancer is diagnosed.
Indications for genetic testing:
1. Testing of individuals with early-age-onset of breast or ovarian cancer
2. Testing of individuals with family history of breast or ovarian cancer
3. Testing of at-risk family members for known mutations
3. Genetic counseling
Testing should be performed if there is a family history of breast or ovarian cancer, genetic alterations have been found in the family, or there is a history of breast cancer in males in the family.